A component of the immune system evoked by the stimulus of a
foreign substance (antigen) which reacts specifically with the
A foreign substance which is identified by the body's immune
system and is attacked through humoral and cell-mediated immune
Conditions in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks
a patient's own organs and tissues.
Originating from self. Tissue grafted from one part of the body
to elsewhere on the same patient is considered autologous.
Long fiber-like extension of a nerve cell that carries impulses.
A class of lymphocyte responsible for producing soluble antibodies
Biologic License Application. Application to the FDA for permission
to market a biological product. The FDA definition of a biological
product includes any virus, therapeutic serum, toxin, antitoxin,
or analogous product applicable to the prevention, treatment
or cure of diseases or injury.
Treatment that makes use of living cells from a culture or a
Central nervous system, comprising the brain, spinal cord and
Control sample(s) in an experiment
"Null" treatment used for comparison. e.g. animals treated with
a drug are compared to control animals that do not receive the
Fine cytoplasmic process on a neuron that receives signals from
Proteinaceous molecule that acts as a catalyst, controlling
the rate of a specific chemical reaction. A large array of different
enzymes provides the metabolic web that allows the processing
and interconversion of diverse molecules within the body.
Outside of the living body.
Food and Drug Administration of the United States of America.
A unit of inheritance. At the molecular level, genes are sequences
of nucleotides (DNA) that usually code for proteins.
Good Manufacturing Practice. Standardized procedures required
by regulatory authorities to ensure consistent and safe production
of a therapeutic product.
Resistance to invading pathogens provided by the specific and
non-specific cells of the immune system.
Investigational New Drug: Regulatory submission to the FDA in
order to receive permission to proceed with clinical trials
in humans. An IND document contains data on preclinical studies
(laboratory and animal experiments), toxicology, pharmacology,
manufacturing, and quality control.
Outside the living body and in an artificial environment (such
as a laboratory).
Inside the living body.
Institutional Review Board (sometimes called Helsinki or Ethics
Committee). Commitee designated to review and authorize any
biomedical research involving human subjects.
A type of white blood cell responsible for the antigen-specific
reactions of the immune system. The major classes of lymphocytes
are B-cells and T-cells.
A type of white blood cell and component of the immune system
which engulfs invading organisms and co-operates with other
white blood cells in immune and inflammatory reactions.
Macrophage resident in the CNS.
Precursor cell that circulates in the blood and develops into
Basic electrical signal-conducting cell of the nervous system,
consiting of cell-body, dendrites and axons.
New Drug Application. Application to the FDA for permission
to market a new drug.
A chain of several amino-acid residues linked by peptide bonds.
Longer chains containing tens or hundreds of amino-acid residues
are usually called polypeptides.
Phase I Clinical Trials
First stage of drug testing in humans. Phase I are designed
for safety testing and typically involve few (up to 20) subjects
(normal volunteers or patients). The exact number of subjects
for each phase of clinical trials (Phase I, II, or III) is determined
based on the product tested, patient population, disease prevalence,
and the hypothesized efficacy rate of the drug.
An inert or innocuous substance used specially in controlled
experiments testing the efficacy of another substance (as a
Peripheral nervous system. The nervous system that serves the
limbs trunk and internal organs, i.e., all nerves except the
nerves of the brain, spinal cord and visual system.
Large molecule composed one or more polypeptide chains, and
often additional chemical factors. Proteins serve as structural
building blocks, as enzymes that catalyse the biochemical reactions
of the body, and as transmitters and receptors of most of the
chemical signals within and between cells.
A molecule on or within a cell membrane or inside the cell,
to which a substance such as an agonist or a ligand selectively
binds to trigger a biological response.
A class of lymphocyte that mounts a cell-mediated immune response
against an antigen. The body has different classes of T-cells,
such as cytotoxic (killer), memory, helper, and suppresser T-cells.
Vaccination The administration of antigens
into the body, with the aim of priming a lasting, specific immune